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Citing Indigenous Sources
- If an author lists an Indigenous name only, list the name as it appears. It is important to remember that although names may be in more than one part, both parts may make up a first name, and there may be no surname. Using the example above, if no English name appeared, the author would be listed as, Hetxw'ms Gyetxw.
- If an author lists an Indigenous name followed by an English name, list the Indigenous name as it appears, followed by the English name in square brackets, with the surname appearing first, followed by the first initial(s). Using the example above, the author would be listed as, Hetxw'ms Gyetxw [Hudson, B.D.].
- If an author lists an English name followed by an Indigenous name, list the English name with the surname appearing first, followed by the first initial(s), and the the Indigenous name as it appears in square brackets.
- List the title as it appears. If a title appears in two languages, list the languages in the order in which they appear, separated by a colon. If the title appears in an alphabet not available in a word processing program, it may be omitted. Using the example above, the title would be listed as, nîhithaw âcimowina: Woods Cree Stories.
- Do not change punctuation or capitalization of Indigenous words; record words as they appear.
According to the Publication Manual, the method of citing Oral Traditions and Traditional Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples varies depending on whether the information has been recorded, and if so, how (8.9):
- In select cases, this information can be cited using a variation of the personal communication citation. More information on this can be found under the How Do I Cite . . .? tab.
- If the information has been recorded and is retrievable by readers, e.g., on video or audio, or printed in an interview transcript, book, or article, it is cited in the text and a reference list entry is created in the correct format for the resource type.
- If the information has not been recorded and is not retrievable by readers, e.g., in the case of an oral teaching, APA Style recommends creating an in-text citation with as much information as is necessary to describe the content and to contextualize the information. Because the information cannot be retrieved by the reader, no reference list entry is used.
- If information was provided directly by an Indigenous person, APA Style recommends using a variation of the personal communication citation. Provide the person's full name, the specific Indigenous group or nation to which they belong, if that information is available, and the date of the communication, e.g.: "We spoke to Diana Cardinal (Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, Ontario, personal communication, November 2019) about . . . ". Alternately, writers can use signal phrases to provide the information, e.g.: "We spoke to Diana Cardinal, of the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, about . . . ". It is important to confirm that the person agrees to have their name included, and that they confirm the accuracy and appropriateness of the information being shared.
- For Indigenous writers who are sharing their personal experiences or the Oral Traditions and Traditional Knowledge of their people, APA Style recommends that the writer describe themselves in the text, e.g., their nation or where they live, to contextualize the information. This can be done using signal phrases. A personal communication citation and reference list entry are not required in this instance.
There are additional resources available that focus on citing traditional knowledge. In her article "More Than Personal Communication: Templates for Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers", Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation) introduces citation templates for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers that MacLeod created in partnership with the staff of the NorQuest Indigenous Student Centre. MacLeod recommends the following citation format:
Last name, First initial. Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.
A link to the full text of MacLeod's article appears on this guide under the "Additional Resources" tab.
"More Than Personal Communication: Templates for Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers"
This article by Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation), "introduces the citation templates for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers that [MacLeod] created in partnership with the staff of the NorQuest Indigenous Student Centre. These citation templates have been adopted or linked to by twenty-five institutions across Canada and the United States. They represent an attempt to formalize something that Indigenous scholars have been doing for decades: fighting to find a better way to acknowledge our voices and knowledges within academia. -- preamble to the article
Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers (Simon Fraser University)
Library staff at Simon Fraser University have assembled an excellent guide on citing Indigenous Elders or Knowledge Keepers, respectful research, and acknowledgment.
Four Feathers Writing Guide (Royal Roads University)
"The Four Feathers Writing Guide respectfully presents traditional Coast Salish1 teachings and approaches to learning to support Indigenous2 students develop as academic writers. While Coast Salish teachings may not be transferrable across all Indigenous communities, we hope those presented in this guide will create a pathway to academic writing. The teachings and approaches to learning in this guide are shared with permission. The ownership of the Traditional Knowledge remains in perpetuity with the appropriate Nation; accordingly, the information should not be re-used without explicit permission." -- website
"Local Contexts supports Indigenous communities to manage their intellectual and cultural property, cultural heritage, environmental data and genetic resources within digital environments. Local Contexts recognizes the inherent sovereignty that Indigenous communities have over knowledge and data that comes from their lands, territories, and waters." -- website
Resources @ Loyalist College
Elements of Indigenous style : a guide for writing by and about Indigenous Peoples by
"Elements of Indigenous Style provides guidelines to help writers, editors, and publishers produce material that reflects Indigenous people in an appropriate and respectful manner. Gregory Younging, a member of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation in Northern Manitoba, has been the managing editor of Theytus Books, the first Aboriginal-owned publishing house in Canada, for over 13 years. Elements of Indigenous Style evolved from the house style guide Gregory developed at Theytus in order to ensure content was consistent and respectful. This guide contains: A historical overview of the portrayal of Indigenous Peoples in literature; Common errors and how to avoid them when writing about Indigenous Peoples; Guidance on working in a culturally sensitive way; A discussion of problematic and preferred terminology; Suggestions for editorial guidelines."-- Provided by publisher.
Call Number: PN147 .Y68 2018
Decolonizing Research : indigenous storywork as methodology by
From Oceania to North America, indigenous peoples have created storytelling traditions of incredible depth and diversity. The term 'indigenous storywork' has come to encompass the sheer breadth of ways in which indigenous storytelling serves as a historical record, as a form of teaching and learning, and as an expression of indigenous culture and identity. But such traditions have too often been relegated to the realm of myth and legend, recorded as fragmented distortions, or erased altogether. Decolonizing Research brings together indigenous researchers and activists from Canada, Australia and New Zealand to assert the unique value of indigenous storywork as a focus of research, and to develop methodologies that rectify the colonial attitudes inherent in much past and current scholarship. By bringing together their own indigenous perspectives, and by treating indigenous storywork on its own terms, the contributors illuminate valuable new avenues for research, and show how such reworked scholarship can contribute to the movement for indigenous rights and self-determination.
Call Number: GN380 .D433 2019
Indigenous and Decolonizing Studies in Education by
Indigenous and decolonizing perspectives on education have long persisted alongside colonial models of education, yet too often have been subsumed within the fields of multiculturalism, critical race theory, and progressive education. Timely and compelling, Indigenous and Decolonizing Studies in Education features research, theory, and dynamic foundational readings for educators and educational researchers who are looking for possibilities beyond the limits of liberal democratic schooling. Featuring original chapters by authors at the forefront of theorizing, practice, research, and activism, this volume helps define and imagine the exciting interstices between Indigenous and decolonizing studies and education. Each chapter forwards Indigenous principles - such as Land as literacy and water as life - that are grounded in place-specific efforts of creating Indigenous universities and schools, community organizing and social movements, trans and Two Spirit practices, refusals of state policies, and land-based and water-based pedagogies.
Call Number: LC3715 .I458 2019